Pagerank:  Pagerank is google algorithm to estimate the relative important of web pages around the web. The basic idea behind Pagerank algorithm is the fact that a link from page A to page B can be seen as a vote of trust from page A to page B. The higher the number of links (weighted to their value) to a web page, therefore, the higher the probability that such page is important.
SEM :  SEM Stands for Search Engine Marketing, It involves marketing services or products via search engines. SEM is divided into two main pillars called SEO and PPC. Seo stands for Search Engine Optimization, and it is the practice of optimizing websites to make their web pages appear in the organic search results. PPC stands for Pay-Per-Click, and it is the practice of purchasing clicks from search engines. The clicks come from sponsored listings in the search results.
Backlinks:  Backlinks are also called as inlink or simply link; it is a hyperlink on another website pointing back to your own website. Backlinks are important for SEO because they affect directly the PageRank of any web page, influencing its search rankings.

SERP:  Stands for Search Engine Results Page. It’s basically the web page you’ll get when you search for a specific keyword on Google or on other search engines. The amount of search traffic your website will receive depends on the rankings it will have inside the SERPs.

Google Search Algorithm:  Google’s search algorithm is used to find the most relevant web pages for any search query. The algorithm considers more than 200 factors (according to Google itself), including the PageRank value, the title tag, the meta tags, the content of the website, the age of the domain and so on.
Web Crawler:  Web Crawler is also called as search bot or spider; it’s a computer program that browses the web on behalf of search engines, trying to discover new links and new pages. This is the first step on the indexation process.
Robots.txt:  This is nothing more than a file, placed in the root of the domain that is used to inform search bots about the structure of the website. For instance, via the robots.txt file it’s possible to block specific search robots and to restrict the access to specific folders of section inside the website.
Blog :  A Web site or portion of a Web site devoted to “Web logging” or “Web journaling”. Blogs are typically used to create content and place links for search results management.

Link Building – The process of acquiring links for a Web document through creation, request, reciprocation, or lease/purchase, or distribution of copy through automated services. This expression has accrued some negative connotation and is gradually being replaced by other expressions such as Link Acquisition.
Search Engine Marketing The practice of promoting one or more Websites through the services offered by search engines. The use of paid search listings often referred to as PPC (pay-per-click) advertising. Search engine marketing is the process of promoting products and/or services through Web search.
Search Engine Optimization The practice of designing, modifying, and/or supplementing Web documents to rank well in search engines. Now mostly superceded by link building (q.v.) and/or link baiting

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